2.1 Brief Biography of Muhammad Abduh
Muhammad Abduh has the full name of Muhammad Abduh ibn Hasan ibn Khairullah, he was born in the village in the district Mahallat Nasr al-Bahira, Egypt in 1849 AD and died in 1905 AD His father was Muhammad Abduh ibn Hasan Khairullah, he was a farmer of Turkish descent, and his mother is of Arab descent. Period of education pursued in Thanta Muhammad Abduh, an Ahmadi mosque institution. The place is He studied Arabic, Nahwu, Sharf, jurisprudence and so on.
The method used in other methods of learning is not rote without understanding beyond the head, so that makes Muhammad Abduh was not satisfied with the teaching methods applied. The disappointment of what was in Thanta, Muhammad Abduh decided to make studying at Al-Azhar. But disappointment again he can while knowing that the method used is similar to what is used in Thanta. In addition, the lessons that he can at Al-Azhar is only about religion. Began to despair he felt until he met Jamaludin Sayyid al-Afghani who came to Egypt at that time.
2.2 Educational Thought in Islam Muhammad Abduh
a. The concept of Islamic Education
Renewal in the field of education a top priority of Muhammad Abduh, western-oriented education. He founded various schools that mimic western system of education and teaching. The first type of traditional schools. The second type, modern schools established by the Egyptian government by foreign missionaries. Both types of educational institutions have no relationship at all each one stands alone.
The existence of two types of education also affect the emergence of two social classes with different motivations. Type the first melahirkn clerics and community leaders who maintain the tradition, while the second type of childbirth class elite school youth who idolize and received development from the west without filtration.
Muhammad Abduh see any negative aspects of both forms of thought, he considers that if the pattern remains in the first fikir maintained it could lead to Muslims left behind further and further pressured by the currents of modern life. semetara fikir the second pattern, Muhammad Abduh saw that the modern thinking that they absorb from the west without the "religious" is a danger that threatens the principle of religion and morals.
From this Muhammad Abduh saw the need to make improvements to both institution so that the two patterns education and support each other in order to achieve any progress and the efforts to narrow the gulf between two educational institutions that would give birth the next generation.
2.3 Initiatives by Muhammad Abduh In Education Reform
Steps in the travel Muhammad Abduh to minimize the duality gap of education is an effort to harmonize, balance between the portion of religious instruction with general subjects. Muhammad Abduh has several steps to empower the Islamic system were:
- Reconstruction of the Islamic Educational Objectives
To empower the education system of Islam, Muhammad Abduh set goals, which are being formulated Islamic education itself that is: Educating the soul and mind and present it to the limits of possibilities one can achieve happiness in life in this world and hereafter.
Educational sense intended as a tool to inculcate the habit of thinking and can distinguish between good and bad. By instilling habits of thought, Muhammad Abduh hoped that hit the intellectual rigidity of the Muslims when it can be melted and spiritual education is expected to give birth the generation that is not only able to think critically, also has a noble character and a clean soul.
In education empowers Islam, Muhammad Abduh set a goal of Islamic education are formulated, namely: educating the mind and soul and present it to the limits of possibilities one can achieve happiness in this world and hereafter.1 From the formulation of these educational purposes, it is understood that to be achieved by Muhammad Abduh is a goal which includes aspects of cognitive (mind) and affective aspects (spiritual). So a balance between reason and the spiritual. Educational sense intended as a tool to inculcate the habit of thinking and be able to distinguish good and bad; between bringing benefit and harm. With this, Muhammad Abduh hoped stagnation that plagued the Muslim thinking at that time can be eroded.
For Muhammad Abduh, human actions proceed from the conclusion that human beings are free to act. (Proceedings of the Islamic Educational Thought of Muhammad Abduh By: Muhammad Arifin Jahari).2
Monotheism was, he explained that the support of a human action is the reason, will and power. Merging with the spiritual purpose (affective), is expected to give birth to a new generation of high intelectual, critical thinking, but also has a noble spirit and soul clean. So that the attitudes that reflect moral humility can be erased. According to Abduh, if these two aspects are educated and developed, in the sense of mind and soul intelligent educated with religious morality, then Muslims will rise up and be able to race and can compensate for the nations that have advanced culture.
- Initiating Islamic Education Curriculum The Integral
In the field of education, Muhammad Abduh tended to use a method based rationalist philosophy.3 The influence of his teacher (Jamaluddin) was large enough to methods of learning which he applied after he became an educator. The method used by Jamaluddin is a practical method ('maliyyah) that promotes understanding by way of discussion.4
The education system is in stand by Muhammad Abduh is not a functional education system that includes the import of universal education for all children, male or female. All must have basic skills such as reading, manulis, and counting. besides that, all should get a religious education.
For high school, subjects given the Shari'ah, military, medicine and science lessons on government for students who are interested plunge and work in government. The curriculum must include, among others, introduction to the book of knowledge, art, logic, reasoning principles and procedures for debate.
For higher education is for orientation of teachers and principals, it is more complete use traditional curriculum that includes al-quran tafsir, philology, the science of hadith, the study of morality, prinsif-prinsif fiqh, histogarfi, the art of speaking.
Of the several curricula that are triggered Muhammad Abduh, he willed that the curriculum is expected to give birth several community groups such as the group of lay people and community groups of government officials and military group of educators and community groups. With such a curriculum that Muhammad Abduh tried to eliminate the dualism in distance education.
In addition to the educational sense, Muhammad Abduh also concerned with the generation born of spiritual education that is capable of thinking and had a noble spirit and a clean soul. The purpose of such pedidikan he embodied in a set curriculum from the basic level to the upper level. Curriculum are:
- The curriculum of Al-Azhar
Muhammad Abduh's career began after he graduated college in 1877, the efforts of Prime Minister Riadl Pasha, he was appointed a lecturer at the University of Darul Uloom, besides it also became a lecturer at al-Azhar University. He continued to make the changes that fairly radical in accordance with his ideals, which include new and fresh air at the universities of Islam, Muslims turn to new methods in accordance with the progress of time, develop a language Arabic literature so rich and life, and eliminate the old ways are old-fashioned and fanatical.
In teaching, Muhammad Abduh stressed to his students to think critically, rationally and not be tied to an opinion, and away from fatalism understand, because the lack of uncritical and fatalism Muslim Ummah is the cause of deterioration, weakness of the people, the absence of the People of jihad, a lack of progress Ummat culture and deprived people of basic norms of Islamic education
He stressed the importance of understanding in every lesson. He warned educators not to teach students with rote memorization, because this method will only undermine the power of reason, as they experienced when learning in school formation in the Ahmadi mosque in Thanta.5
He stressed the importance of understanding in every lesson. He warned educators not to teach students with rote memorization, because this method will only undermine the power of reason, as they experienced when learning in school formation in the Ahmadi mosque in Thanta.5
Among the educational reforms of Muhammad Abduh concentration is about women's education. According to him, women have equal rights with men in receiving education services. In raising the dignity of women, munurunya there are several things that must be fought: learning for women; narrow the divorce, and the prohibition of polygamy.6 All thoughts of Muhammad Abduh of women stated and developed in al-Tahrir works mar'ah students, Qosim Amin.
Points mentioned above basically shows the intellectual crisis in the Islamic world that protracted. One cause of this crisis is due to the dichotomy of Sciences at the time, so that Muslims lag far behind culturally and civilization. Likewise that occurred at al-Azhar, Muhammad Abduh believed that if education at al-Azhar can be repaired, then the condition of Muslims will come good. He said the administration needed to be reform, expanded curriculum, including modern sciences, al-Azhar sehinnga can stand unuversitas par with other universities in Europe, as well as serve as a beacon and a lamp to the Muslims
The proposed effort Muhammad Abduh Al-Azhar University, among others:
- Incorporate modern sciences that developed in Europe into the al-Azhar.
- Changing sistgem began studying science education from a memorizing system into a system of understanding and reasoning.
- Turning munazaroh method (discution) before heading to taqlid
- Make regulations regarding the prohibition of learning such as reading hasyiyah (the comments) and Sharh (explanation at length about learning text) to students for the first four years.
- Extended learning period and shorten the holidays.
- Public Elementary Schools
Muhammad Abduh argued that religion is the basic building blocks of a human soul and personal. Thus the religious subjects should be taught as early as possible in children since they were in elementary school. Referring to the statement that the religion of Islam is the basic building blocks and private life of a Muslim, is expected to have the soul of a Muslim personality, then the Egyptians would have togetherness and spirit of nationalism that can deliver the Egyptian society to make progress in national life.
- Top Level School
One effort to improve education in Egypt is to set up a government high school for print experts in various fields of administration, military, health, industry, and so on. At this stage, Muhammad Abduh found it necessary to add material - material relating to the religion of Islam. With the matter of religion, is expected to prospective employees and military officers have a stock of religion and good morals.
The three types of schools that formed Muhammad Abduh was not aimed at creating a social group exclusively, but has a purpose to serve the public interest. Principles applied by Muhammad Abduh is the underlying need for a moral and religious education. Teaching is required to achieve a better life, while education is seen as the most effective tool to make a change.
Third curriculum package above is a general description of the curriculum of religious instruction at every level. Muhammad Abduh did not include science - the science of the west on the curriculum he designed. It confirms that Muhammad Abduh giving more priority to basic knowledge such as Fiqh, history of islam religion, morals, and language in formal education.
- Methods of Islamic Education
What is meant by the methods of Islamic education here is all the means used in an effort to educate children. Therefore, the methods in question include also the teaching methods. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. To that end, all methods of education or teaching according to Muhammad Abduh who will be described below does not reject and deny the existence of other methods. Method the method to be described, selected on the consideration of the literature found. Da1am this discussion, will be described rote memorization, the method of discussion, question and answer method, the method of excursion, method demonstrations, training methods, methods models, active student learning (CBSA), and measures of teaching.
- Method of Memorization
In the field of teaching methods using rote memorization of Muhammad Abduh who has practiced in the schools was put on rote memorization. Because of this reason rote memorization of Muhammad Abduh frustration and learn to hate when he studied at the Ahmadi mosque Thanta. Muhammad Abduh criticize rote memorization does not mean hating the method, he did not agree with this method. Then he said: "I said Muhammad Abduh, has experienced this kind of teaching, learning year and a half without understanding something of the al-Kafrawi and Ajrumiyah. Nahwu science teaching methods without understanding the terms have been made (Muharnmad Abduh) do not understand something, I finally learned hate and despair. "
Memorize this method should be forwarded to the understanding, so to understand what is learned. According Arbiyah Lubis, in the writings of Muhammad Abduh, he did not specify what methods should be applied, but from his experience teaching at al-Azhar University, Egypt appears to he applied the method of discussion.
- Method Discussion
Of the learning experience of Muhammad Abduh and his criticism of rote memorization, it is known that he is concerned with understanding, it is supported by the fact that he is practicing the method and discussion method he liked. When Muhammad Abduh QS.al interpret an-Nisa verse thirty-five, in his statement about "وبالوالدين إحسانا" It is said that this method of educating children of parents in making the child as a human being passive, so they (the parents) to educate the children by way of a dictator . Most parents of children scored in accordance with their will. The children become knowledgeable or knowledgeable in accordance with the knowledge of parents. The children act in accordance with the wishes of parents.
In the above explanation, Muhammad Abduh argued that education and teaching methods should consider the ability of talents and interests of students. In other words, teaching methods that provide freedom of thought and creativity in education and teaching is a method of discussion. This discussion method is widely practiced by Muhammad Abduh in teaching at al-Azhar University of Egypt. Memorization in the learning process is not possible in denied because he is very essential. Evidently a lot of Muslims who had memorized the Koran include Muhammad Abduh. Thus, it is certain that Muhammad Abduh did not proscribe rote memorization, but it can be known from experience and critique of rote memorization, it seems he believes that rote memorization without understanding is not good (to say nothing bad).
- Methods answer-questions
Humans have the right to open the way for prosecutors to examine the science in a variety of science. For example: he explained the rules or a theory, then he looked for their suitability in various aspects of the job. In this case method of teaching, teachers should teach students how to find the error and the way back to the right. Manner so that was practiced by Muhammad Abduh when learning that he became an expert. As for the deepening of a science depends on the efforts of a person's protégé after graduating from an educational institution, then he would practice what he gained when schools.
Muhammad Qodri Lutfi said that Muhammad Abduh in teaching methods hiwar (answer-question) and munaqasah (discussion) It's not just talk the two methods of questioning and discussion can co-exist even in any discussion of any question and answer method, but absolutely in question and answer method there discussion method.
- Methods excursions.
Muhammad Abduh in his thinking often makes a breakthrough in education and teaching. In terms of methods such excursions mentioned that rihlah is harmonious in education. One function of this method to be able to understand the material to the students. In addition, the method of excursion one indication that learning is not just in the classroom. Teaching methods as mentioned above is more appropriate to use in primary schools where the ability to think abstractly immature students.
- Methods Demonstration
In the present material of practical sciences (fi'liyah) should not only be taught to communicate their knowledge by lecturing, and students were told to memorize it fi'liyah sciences should be taught in a way to include practice, such as teaching procedures for the five daily prayers with demonstration either in class or in the mosque.
- Method of Exercise
To integrate the mind and soul of education, teachers in schools should send their students to perform the five daily prayers. For schools that have non-Islamic religious students as Christians, then the teacher should not order them to perform prayer, but even non-Muslim students who are not praying, but the spiritual values must not be lost from them.
From the description of the habituation of worship mentioned above, it is understood that Muhammad Abduh very democratic and respect for religious freedom. But the common values of [intellectual] and soul [spiritual] is universal, so it applies to the entire nation, tribe, nation, religion, and so on.
Muhammad Abduh thinking the other is about the education of women. He said women should receive equal education with men - men. Men - men and women have equal rights before God, according to his word (Surat Al-Baqarah: 228), as well as in (Surat al-Ahzab: 35). Muhammad Abduh in the verse of the view that aligns women and men - men in terms of getting forgiveness and if given the same God for the actions of both temporal and religious. From here he contradicts that women entitled to an equal education with men-men. Women should be released from the chains of ignorance and therefore needs to be given education.
In the field of non-formal education, Muhammad Abduh mention the restoration effort (reconciliation), in this case Muhammad Abduh saw the need for government intervention, especially in terms of preparing the preachers. Their main tasks include:
- Delivering the obligation and importance of learning
- Educate them by giving lessons on what they forget or they do not know.
- Breathed into their souls in love with the country, ground water, and leaders.
In addition, outside of formal education, Muhammad Abduh emphasized the importance of education and learn the science of mind - the science that comes from the west. In addition, Muhammad Abduh encourage Muslims to learn science - modern science.
Educational reform undertaken by Muhammad Abduh factor is influenced by the religious situation and the educational situation that occurred at that time. Religious social situation in Egypt was quite apprehensive. The crisis that befell the people not only in the field of theology and sharia, but also character and morals. Thought of Muhammad Abduh in accordance with the existing at the time. The reform of the education carried out by Muhammad Abduh in Al-Azhar was also a big impact on the existing educational institutions in Egypt and even the idea of penbaharuannya written and disseminated also through the famous magazine in Egypt, namely Al-Manar and Al-Al-Wusqa Urwat.
Muhammad Abduh tried to make the curriculum in accordance with what it takes Egyptian society at that time. He argues that the special schools that educate the clergy should be given a broad subject, so he put some extra knowledge on kurikuluum al-Azhar, among others, philosophy, logic, and modern science. It is his intention to prepare qualified human resources, namely that modern scholars.
From some of the work done by Muhammad Abduh, although he has not had time to fully apply temporally. Have a positive impact on the institution of Islamic pendididkan. Muhammad Abduh less effort so smoothly due to get a challenge from the powerful cleric who firmly adhered to the old tradition in defended.
According to Muhammad Abduh cause the decline of Islam is due to understand stagnant (static, frozen, and no change) because of this understanding, Muslims do not want and do not want to accept the changes. Understand the non-Arabs entered by the person who succeeded in holding the summit of political power of the Islamic world. Thus affecting customs and animistic understanding and it's done well by people - people who do not belong to the intellectual.
Muhammad Abduh argued that Islam is a rational religion. By opening the doors of ijtihad Muslims then progress will be achieved. If Islam is interpreted and understood correctly, then no one is opposed to the science. Muhammad Abduh declared that reason is a human potential that Islam strongly recommends use of wits with the best - good. Revelation does not explain things - things that are contrary to reason, but if it outwardly Quranic verses seem contrary to reason, then the interpretation must be sought that makes the verse is not contrary to reason.7
In addition, the necessity of studying the religious sciences in addition to the sciences that come from the West in formal educational institutions. As for the other is an ideal emphasizes personal growth, which has a balance of knowledge between the sciences of religion with the sciences which are general (coming from the West).
Muhammad Abduh explored the concept of education from educational factors indicates the relevance of the National Education System as stipulated in Law No. 20 of 2003, especially on national education goals, namely the intellectual life of the nation and establish learners who have faith and piety, and still there relevant in another chapter that described in the articles in the law.
Based on the above issues, Muhammad Abduh examine more deeply the idea of Islamic education that represents the modernist-rationalist. Or in other words, the study of Islam Muhammad Abduh educational thinking is on the historicity-empirical responsive to change. As such, or even deconstruction rekonseptualisation be made to the existing Islamic educational heritage. In addition to also make efforts to reform with the aim of optimizing the function of Islamic education in the face of changes and challenges in front.
- Biography of Ibn Taymiyyah
Abul Abbas Ahmad ibn Abdus Salam Taqiuddin bin Abdullah bin al Harrani Taymiyyah (Arabic: أبو عباس تقي الدين أحمد بن عبد السلام بن عبد الله ابن تيمية الحراني), or commonly known by the name Ibn Taymiyyah was born: January 22 1263/10 Rabiul Awwal 661 H - died: 1328/20 Hijjah 728 H is an Islamic thinker and scholar from Harran, Turkey.
Ibn Taymiyyah was born in the days when Baghdad was the center of power and culture of Islam during the Abbasid dynasty. When he was six years (1268), Ibn Taymiyyah brought his father to Damascus because of Iraq's invasion of Mongol armies.
Ibn Taymiyya argues that three early generations of Islam, the Prophet Muhammad and the Companions of the Prophet, then Tabi is the generation that knew instantly the Companions of the Prophet, and Tabi'ut tabi'in the generation who know directly of the Tabi, is an example of best of Islamic life.
- The Features of Ibn Taymiyyah
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah has a variety of Islamic knowledge that existed at the time. He had good command of tafsir and hadith. His expertise in various fields of science shows memory and intelligence are rare. At that time, the Islamic sciences are very broad. Even been extended also naqliyah, which seemed impossible a person can master it all and dare to speak a wide range of issues in front of the characters. The power of thought and memory which Allah gave to Ibn Taymiyyah allows him to master several disciplines: tafsir, hadith, fiqh, mantiq, theology, history, atsar, Rijal (narrator), language and Nahwu.
The ability to remember and incredible intelligence that Sheikh has been recognized by the scholars who lived in his time. They, even clerics then, has agreed a thumbs-up to the rote, the speed of understanding, and intelligence Sheikh.
Ibn Taymiyyah explore all the Islamic sciences and the fields that exist in his day. His mastery of the various fields of science supported by the memory, intelligence, and scientific attitudes inherited from his parents, despite a persistent effort in learning as well as get taufik from God Almighty.
Another specialty that he possesses he has devoted himself to religion. During her life had never busied himself for others. Many other friends who are sincere rulers, still busying himself with the affairs of the government to get the benefits or salaries. Ibn Taymiyyah was never interested in it. For him nothing else matters but the care of religious knowledge, giving fatwas, teaching, advising, giving clues, compile the book, and prove a problem.
- Thinking About Education Islam Ibn Taymiyyah
Thought of Ibn Taymiyyah on Islamic education revolves around some of the things that is the philosophy of education, educational objectives and teaching methods.8
- Philosophy of Islamic Education
According to his philosophy of education is useful knowledge is the principle for intelligent life and superior. While using science can ensure sustainability and continuity of society, without which society would fall into a misguided life. So the point is useful knowledge invites the righteous life that is directed at the relationship with God and be connected to the realities of being and strengthen a sense of humanity.
According to ibn Taymiyyah that it is studying in depth understanding of worship and devotion to Allah is the attitude of studying it is a jihad, taught to people who do not know and discussion is a rosary.
According to Ibn Taymiyyah that the most important thing that must base their philosophy of education is at-Tawheed, which claimed two kelimah Shahadah as the main base of Islamic teachings. Tawhid is the principle according to Ibn Taymiyya's education can be divided into three, namely:
- Tawhid rububiyah
Convinced that there is one God, who created all mahluq, organize and guide him.
- Tawhid uluhiyyah
Convinced that God was the only god who deserves to be called god, obey and be obeyed in all his orders and stay away from all laranganya.
- Asmma and properties
Convinced that everything runs in reality in this universe is God's rule.
- Tabi'at Insaniyah
According to ibn Taymiyyah that humans are endowed tabi'at or tendencies Oneness of God as contained in the philosophy of education.
- Purposes of Islamic Education
Islamic educational goals to be achieved according to Ibn Taymiyyah include three things:
- Individual Objectives
The purpose of education should be directed to the formation of a good person, ie one who thinks, feels and works on various fields of life at any time in line with what is on Al Quran and Sunnah as. Good person is a person thinks those perfect personality to those who are straight the way the mind and soul, clean his conviction, his spirit strong and capable undertaking command of Allah SWT.
- Social Objectives
That Islamic education should be driven to the creation of good community and in line with the provisions of Qur'an and Sunnah as where humans can live together with others, mutual help, advise and help each other overcome the problems of others and so forth.
- The purpose (dakwah) islamiyah
The purpose of education should be able to direct the Ummah to be ready and able to assume the task of preaching the whole world Islamiyah. It is based that God sent his messenger to give the glad tidings and warning, so that all men will accept and follow his teachings.
- Teaching Methods
According to Ibn Taymiyyah outline teaching methods can be divided into two things: Methods and Methods Iradiyah Ilmiyah. This is based on the Al Qalb (heart) is the main tool for learning. That careful control of all members of the body and direct the course.
According to his own heart has two power ie power Ilmiyah (thinking power) and Al-Iradiyah Power is a tendency to practice what one thinks. Thought starts from the heart and will end up in the liver, and when the will of god (his will of doing something) begins in the liver to all of the limbs and on the peak power usage in mind. Thus the sense is a trait found in the liver that is thought and willpower.
In general, according to Ibn Taymiyyah, the curriculum should be directed towards learners in accordance with the guidance of Islam. More details, curriculum should be in line with the objectives to be achieved in education itself. According to his curriculum briefly sets out some things as the following:
- Curriculum related to the Oneness of God
- Curriculum related to know in depth against God sciences.
- Curriculum related to the effort that encourages people to know in depth (ma'rifat) against the power of God.
- Curriculum related to the effort that encourages to know the deeds of God.
1 Harun Nasution, Muhammad Abduh dan Teologi Rasional Muktazilah (Jakarta: 1987) hlm. 309
2 Arifin, Muhammad Jahari . Risalah Pemikiran Pendidikan Islam Muhamad Abduh
3 Ahmad Syar’I, Filsafat Pendidikan Islam, (Jakarta: Pustaka Firdaus)Hlm. 108
4 Ysmansyah, Sejarah Pendidikan Islam, (Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group) hlm. 242
5 Nizar, Sejarah Pendidikan, h. 250
6 Imarah, al-A'mal al-Kamilah, jil. I, h.173
7 Ahmad Syar’I, Filsafat Pendidikan Islam, (Jakarta: Pustaka Firdaus) hlm. 110
8 Nata Abudin, Pemikiran Para Tokoh Pendidikan Islam, PT. Grafindo Persada, Jakarta, 2000. hal.137